Until recently, titanium was considered to be an indisputable choice for implant treatment. It is still described as THE biocompatible material.
In reality, when the implant is placed, the body is unable to eject the titanium, so it isolates it by creating a denser gangue of bone around it. This is known as osseointegration.
In a way, therapeutic success could be seen as immune failure.
Depending on the oral environment, titanium implants are either well tolerated or, on the contrary, suffer from peri-implantitis. They may be subject to corrosion and release metal ions that are unhealthy for the body.
Some patients may complain of symptoms such as "brain fog" or chronic fatigue immediately after titanium implants have been placed.
The corrosion resistance of titanium results from the titanium dioxide film which protects the metal from further oxidation. It is generally accepted that titanium has high stability and good corrosion resistance in vitro, although there have been reports of titanium accumulating in tissues adjacent to the implant (M.Browne, P.J. Gregson 2000), which means a release of metal ions and some corrosion in vivo.
In an opinion dated 6 May 2021, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) considers that E171 (titanium dioxide) as a food additive can no longer be considered safe, in particular because genotoxicity effects, i.e. the ability to damage the genetic material of cells, cannot be ruled out...